21 01 22
OPCs have broadly beneficial impact in human health.
New reports focus on the protein-based human structure.
For background, here is a pdf brief introduction to structural proteins.
and the follow on: structural protein synthesis,
for which vitamin C is required and sacrificed! (consumed)
and which OPCs provide co-factored facilitation.
OPCs [Oligomeric ProanthoCyanadins].
Better remembered as Organic Pure Chocolate,
since therein OPCs are most concentrated;
other high-concentration occurrences include types of organic apple: redDelicious and grannySmith.
(as chronicled by USDA). Here is an xls reporting Local market options for chocolate.
Be alert: most chocolate is poisoned by sugar and fat!
For better health, avoid 3 primary evils:
sugar, iron, and cheapFat -- guaranteed to make you s i c.
(Cheap fat is from unscrupulously-raised livestock and non-organic vege/bean/nut > oils).
To these i add sodium aka Na aka salt.
Beware in: bread & grapeNuts, the only commodities i eat minimally containing it.
- never adding to food; except per occasional jarred tomatoSauce
This is an evolving report of scientific searches on probably the most un-heralded vitamin,
if not the closest we may discover to the elusive "fountain of youth".
Worthy of a complete book, we can only arrange the essential intro here,
increasingly affirmed, initially by the success of this food element
in 2 carefully charted aspects over multi-year clinical progress - and decade as personal vitamin
(1) anti-oxidant nullification of (iatrogenic) iron poisoning; and
(2) anti-Leukemic, consistent with 2009 research at uKy.edu.
(3) personal improvement: neuro, musculo-skeletal, et al.
For over a decade, US Dept Agriculture has assembled reports of content
of OPCs in foods, providing authors and reliability of reports:
USDA Nutrient Data - focus: Flavanoids >> Flavanols
2019: USDA Database - Flavanol Content of Selected Foods. 3.3 (March 2018)
2019 Feb 23: Simple Table of values extracted from above Database > 1pg .pdf
2015 Report of USDA 2014 database of OPCs (formatted / annotated) (prior)
(Now that the horse is back to the barn, i suspect Trump enjoyed his stamina by this agent.)
Oligomeric ProanthoCyanidins are a set of 3-ring molecular polymers prevalent in various plants that we may encounter and pursue among our food options (USDA assembled).
There are reasons you may not have heard about OPCs that we will overcome here together in time. Being a long-time healthNut, it is not likely i would have learned about OPCs if not for the value they represent in the case of my dear uncle Tom. (This link opens the case 1 & 2 above.)
My 1970 medical school biochemistry textbook by Lehninger makes no mention of bioflavonoids (aka flavonoids), the largest group of molecules relevant to our ultimate interest in the much smaller peer group of flavanols (aka bioflavanols).
Both classes share the flavan core:
For both, the pyran (the O-top ring) couples 2 carbon rings. The double-bonded Oxygen makes the flavonoid core a ketone, which imparts the characteristic yellow color (lemon).
Flavanols, in contrast, are alcohols, by addition of a hydroxyl group (Oxygen, then Hydrogen):
flavan-3-ol core of OPCs
Notice the O is position #1, then counting clockwise,
the hydroxyl OH is at #3.
For cleaner pictures, the Carbon atom C is not explicit on a carbon ring
but is implied at each of 6 points on the ring. Only exceptions are depicted (in this case, Oxygen).
Each carbon atom, the primary building block of living systems,
shares a total of 4 electrons with connected atoms within the molecule.
Each bond to another atom is depicted by a connecting line (representing 2 shared electrons).
By default, when less than 4 bonds are counted at a Carbon atom, the missing bond is implied to be a Hydrogen atom H, which is not depicted to keep the picture clean. So in the cleaner schematic, we properly imagine H atoms as required to complete 4 bonds at each C atom.
On this core of flavan-3-ol, the natural OPC plant product has 4 more hydroxyls:
flavan-3-ol monomer (Telescopic bond represents alternative 3-D configurations.)
There are 4 possible isomers of the OPC building block, each bearing a separate name.
The monomer flavan-3-ol is also named "catechin" after the Acacia Tree -
(notice all the controversy consistent with its widespread occurrence near the equator, except South America; and indeterminate age, including paleozoic varieties.)
For more see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavan-3-ol, including my contribution, numbered 1.
An -OH on a single carbon ring is a "benzenol", aka phenol, so some refer to this chemical group as phenols, and, when concatenated: polyphenols. So flavanols are a subclass of polyphenols.
Strictly, "Oligo" means few; in this case 2 or 3. "Poly" means 4 or more.
In plants, the catechin building block monomer, to various degrees, polymerizes, "connects"
forming di-mers (2), tri-mers (3), and polymers > 4 or more >> finally forming tannins.
It turns out: most effective for optimimum living by us ingestors are di-mers and tri-mers, collectively: Oligomeric ProanthoCyanidins OPCs.
There are many anthocyanidins, depending on various extensions to the core catechin, so the "Pro" prefix is used to refer to the most essential core and its self-concatenated dimers and trimers, excluding higher-order polymers.
There is plenty to describe about the poly-anthoCyanidins, which ultimately are the stuff of autumnal red leaves and the basis of "tannins", i.e. strong dyes that have high affinity for proteins like collagens in leather. But for health, we enjoy the unpigmented (colorless) 2s & 3s.
OPCs, most concentrated in cocoa Bean - if properly processed: chocolate.
Naturally, extractions from plants result in some "cohabitants" including monomers and polymers. It turns out that while monomers are not bioactive, dimers and trimers are best accompanied by some monomers, so that a perfect blend of all three assure the highest stability of the mix.
Substantially concurring with NIH & U.MD Medical Center:
Prior to 1947, all the above was not known at the molecular level.
Certainly, tannins have been used a long time. And the English sailors
("Limeys") learned about the flavonoids - not per se but conjectured: "citrin"
and vitamin C, isolated during 1928-33 by research on both sides of the pond
which led to 1937 Nobel prize award to Hungarian Albert Szent-Gyorgyi.
Vitamin C Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893-1986)
Notice the di-hydroxyl, ketonated 5-sided furan ring.
The book informing this discussion and source of excerpts is
OPC in Practice2, 1995 3rd Edition, by Bert Schwitters in collaboration with Prof. Jack Masquelier. Masquelier eventually found OPCs is "citrin". But before that, Szent-Gyorgyi continued his study of "citrin" to find that it
[pg 11] possessed vascular wall strengthening properties. The collapse of the vascular wall is one of the main causes of the phenomena of scurvy. Because citrin did a much better job than vitamin C, Szent-Gyorgyi decided he had found a new vitamin. He took the "P" from the word "permeability" and baptized the extract "vitamin P". Still, citrin never really acquired real vitamin status because later experiments failed to demonstrate a condition of citrin deficiency. But it had become clear that citrin contained one or more of the co-factors that strengthen the effects of ascorbic acid. During the rest of his life, Szent-Gyorgyi never refuted the fact that scurvy is not caused by a lack of vitamin C, but by a lack of vitamin C + a co-factor. [ citrin > Vitamin P > OPCs ! ]
As told 1994 by Masquelier: in 1947, Szent-Gyorgyi is 54, and visited 25-yr-old Phd student Masquelier in his lab at University of Bordeaux, attracted by Masquelier's work on the red skin of peanuts (from which Masquelier later that year first isolated the OPCs). Szent-Gyorgyi remarked:
[pg 13] "But Mr. Masquelier, are you still interested in that? Don't you know that in the U.S. no one believes in bioflavonoids (citrin) anymore?...It's unbelievable. They have made me the father of vitamin C, while I wasn't, and they have refused to make me the father of vitamin P, which I was."
That passing of the baton to Masquelier occurred in the context of expanding confusion as the number of researchers, taxonomies, names, flavonoids, flavanols, and their bio-value was confused in the market with claims that could not always be validated. Further, the flavanols and poly-catechins were not clearly distinguished from the OPCs, which Masquelier devoted his life to purify and render.
Most significantly, from the remains of wine-making, especially the seeds of grapes, he found a low-cost supply from which to yield the magic trilogy of monomers/dimers/trimers. He later found the abundant source of maritime pine tree bark; and most recently, a pine bark of Canada! - which closes the loop beginning with the native Americans sharing their secret with the EuroNewBee "Limeys".
The role of OPCs in plant health, apparently, is the antioxidant protective function it provides to oils within grape seeds, the resin (sap) behind tree bark, and the skin of oxidizable fruits and grains like apples and rye berries.... For us humans, there is more value to appreciate!
diverging: [Wikipedia] Linus Pauling (1901 - 1994), the only receiver of 2 unshared Nobel prizes (Chemistry and Peace),
first reported the above cited carbon tetravalency (4 electrons shared in bonding to other atoms) early in his research.
Later studying molecules including hemoglobin, Pauling first proposed that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was a triple helix;
later contibuting to the theory defining the mechanism of complementary replication.
Pauling clarified mechanisms by which enzymes subvert the Second Law of Thermodynamics, thereby enabling Life;
and postulated the complementarity (lock and key) that characterizes antibody-antigen interaction.
In November 1949, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano, S. J. Singer and Ibert Wells published "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" in the journal Science. It was the first proof of a human disease caused by an abnormal protein, and sickle cell anemia became the first disease understood at the molecular level.
After his 1941 onset of renal disease, Pauling's research-guided self-help led to his 1970 Vitamin C and the Common Cold. We wonder if he had conferred with Masquelier? !!
By the way, your author here, john, since 2010 -
adopting daily supplement of OPCs, now usually just 1per day - for a decade - never a "cold".
[back to Masquelier2, pg 71-73]:
Some mammals, e.g. dogs, produce their own vitamin C. Like humans, guinea pigs do not produce vitamin C, and therefore must obtain it from their diet. Masquelier tested guinea pigs, depriving them of vitamin C. He found that for survival, the amount of vitamin C required was greatly reduced if OPCs were also provided.
"In a way Pauling was right about his high doses of vitamin C. Not knowing about OPC, he had no other options. But I am convinced that if Linus Pauling had known OPC, he would not have prescribed 18 grams of vitamin C, but a small amount C and a small amount of OPC. Most certainly I feel that I would have been able to convince him!"
Masquelier was also interested in bioavailability of OPCs. In 1977, using the well-known method, carbon labeling he grew grapevines in controlled chambers in which CO2, the main "food" consumed by plants in photosynthesis, was radioactive using Carbon-14 instead of the normal Carbon-12. Thus, measuring body components after death of mice who consumed radioactive OPCs, he quantified the Carbon-14 marker, reporting the score for 14 tissues. Highest score: 7.8 aorta. Index (lowest) score, 1.0 blood.
[pg 51] OPC was orally administered to test animals and right after application (10 minutes) the blood was already highly radioactive. This means that entry from the digestive tract occurs immediately. The maximum radioactivity level in the blood is already reached in forty-five minutes. Subsequently the radioactivity dropped slowly and after seven hours, the level was still at something more than a third of the maximum. The biological half life time is approximately five hours.
(Another forgettably awkward synonym for OPCs coined by their discoverer Masquelier in 1979 is pycnogenol [pg 24] "The Greek "pycno" means "thick," the "gen" part stands for generate and the "ol" suffix comes from flavanol.".)
Masquelier died in 2009, having established International Nutrition Company (INC), the institutional support for his legacy of continuing integrity of production and marketing of OPCs:
U.S.: http://www.masquelier.us/ global: http://masquelier.com http://ibioceuticals.com/
1987 U.S. Patent # 4,698,360 4698360.pdf
It works for me! See below for Practical Tips
Clinically, for uncle Tom: addressing iatrogenic serum iron elevation: OPC value is especially evident in its clinically effective role controlling leukemia and counter-acting the most deathly free radical insult of iron overload.
Note the published statement at http://ibioceuticals.com/bioavailability.html
and U.S. Pharmacopia report:
(note the place for value purchase; but glad to share my source - for your benefit. not an ad.
Reflecting abundant review of OPC knowledge, here are some
1. Masquelier clearly proved the affinity of OPCs for collagen, the basis for the body's structural integrity. The first 2 clicks on this page offer practical intros. One medical school professor especially instructed my view of the body as a system of ducts (tubes) through the "operational" / functional cellular tissue comprising each organ, and especially: muscle. The high affinity of OPCs for collagen indicate a complementary relationship between the highly intertwined strands of fibrin comprising collagen, the primary composition of said tubes.
Therefore, to optimize the efficacy of OPCs, avoid concurrent ingestion of collagenous protein. Unlike most other vitamins, i take OPCs on an empty stomach so they seek body collagen and not dietary collagen.
2. As a chemo-mechanic, silicon is a favored anti-friction agent that optimizes plumbing and mechanical connections and operations. I view OPCs as the body's silicon. In the body, i am coming to believe the "friction" has to do with free radicals latching onto fibrin producing "raw edges" of collagen experienced as stiffness/soreness by the human; which i can attest is averted and/or treated by "vitamin P" / OPCs.
The subject of free radicals is vast and i expect it will be the object of lifeLong learning. Life is an anomaly within the vast, undeniable Second Law of Thermodynamics (we all will die; Time's Arrow; a match struck is irreversible.)
3. Obviously, there is synergy between Vitamin C and OPCs (Vitamin "P"), and adding OPCs to your diet will reduce the requirement for C.
4. It is a wondrous BONUS that OPCs also lead dysfunctional cancer cells to their proper death (Apoptosis)! Thus, OPCs protect against the cell going awry; but if the cell should go awry, OPCs will chase the cancer cell to its death. Here is GOD's magic bullit, but (therefore) you will never see it on ad or hear about it from your doc. The conventional doctor is a pawn in the racket of pharmaceutics, where drug companies only make the BIG BUCK$ by achieving patented formulations that must be pushed by ads and docs - along with the toxic side-effects (even death!). Viewing these ridiculous ads for poisons, one has to be really stupid to be enchanted by the visuals and ignore the required warnings. No warnings required for OPCs. No patent is awarded for what GOD provides.
1. A simple unit 6-Carbon ring with only 6-Hydrogens is the very toxic Benzene (the basis of all "aromatics") which is harmfully reactive with many biologic molecules. If one Hydrogen atom on the benzene ring is interceded by an Oxygen atom, the result is "benzenol", commonly called "phenol", an aromatic alcohol, making it 40x more water soluble and still bio-toxic. Nature, aka GOD, has fashioned non-toxic results by making additions to these aromatic rings.
2. WorldCatalog: OPC in Practice, 1995 3rd Edition, by Bert Schwitters in collaboration with Prof. Jack Masquelier
Anti-Oxidants >> Anti - Cancer
2013 Jan Harvard Newsletter, note page 4.
012 Mar 22 Cincinnati Enquirer, provides:
2012 Mar 19 Article from Bloomberg News
Proceedings of National Academy of Science:
here provided as marked-up pdf to more simply expose the simple truths within the obtuse report:
2011 Aug 30 Anti-oxidant Leukemia killer